Per Ankh

Per Medjat

House of Books, the Per Medjat

Wisdom Literature/ Didactic Texts

There are two types of wisdom literature: Instruction/ Sebayt, and Reflective/ Discourse

Instruction/ Sebayt/ Maxims

Hardjedef's from the Fourth Dynasty. Debate whether it was written later than the Fourth Dynasty and therefore wasn't written by Hardjedef.

Ptahhotep's from the Fifth Dynasty. He is said to be the vizier of Djedkare-Isesi. Debate whether it was written by him or not.

Instruction of King Menkara. Shame it's from the First Intermediate Period.

Instruction of Amenemhat I - a classic from the beginning of the Twelfth Dynasty.

Instruction of Any and Amenemipet son of Kanakt in the New Kingdom.

Reflective/ Discourse

Admonitions of Ipuwer from the Middle Kingdom.

Discourse of Neferty

Dialogue of a Man with his Ba

Dialogue of the Head and the Belly

Discourse of Khakheperraseneb

Discourse of Sasobek


Shaw, Ian, and Paul Nicholson. (1995, 2003). "literature, wisdom literature." The Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. New York: Harry N Abrams, Inc.

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