Kings and Queens of Egypt
Aha may have been the legendary Menes, for Men is one of his titles. However, he was not the unifier of Egypt. Legends say he founded Memphis and built a dyke to reroute the Nile and create a flood plain. He did make Memphis his capital. During his time, the area around the First Cataract came under Egyptian control. He was at war with Nubia and Libtya, and possibly traded with Syria-Palestine. He has tombs at Saqqara and Abydos. His mother (or wife) was Neithotep, who has a tomb in Nubt. His main wife was Berenib, and his heir was Djer, whose mother was Hent.
Throne name: Neb-pehty-re "The Lord of Strength is Re"
He is he first king of the eighteenth dynasty of the New Kingdom. He was the son of Sekenenre'-Ta'o and Queen Ahhotep. He succeeded his eldest brother, Kamose, who was the last king of the 17th dynasty at Thebes. Ahmose drove back the Hyksos to their capital in Avaris in the Delta. While Ahmose fought against Avaris, some Egyptians around Thebes rebelled. Ahmose
put that rebellion down, and then successfully beseiged Avaris. He also put down a rebellion in Nubia and restored government in Egypt.
He has a short reign. His successor Semerkhet erased his name from jubilee vases.
Throne name: Semti
A king of the first dynasty. He was probably the son of Djet. He may have had medical training and was thought to encourage the arts. He was involved in war in the Sinai. Merneith may have been his regent when he was young.
A king of the first dynasty. He was the son of Aha and Hent or Khentap, and ruled after Aha. He built a palace in Memphis and may have ruled for 50 years. Some say the Sothic calendar may have been started in Djer's time, but some say a good time for starting the calendar was much later, because a good time to syncronize the calendar came later. The Sothic calendar includes Sopet rising in Memphis at the time of the Nile flooding. He was involved in a war in Sinai, and he sent an expedition to Nubia and Libya. His wife was Herneith. He had over 580 retainers buried beside him. [In reality, "Osiris' tomb" is his."]
A king of the first dynasty. He ruled after Djer, and may have gone to the Red Sea. His wife was probably Merneith/Mereneith.
Fifth king of the second dynasty. He may have been the actual person who united Upper and Lower Egypt. He may have been Kha'sekhem originally and added the rest when he won his wars. Or his immediate predecessor was called Khasekhem. Either way, Khasemkhemy's wife was Hapnyma'at, the mother of Djoser.
She has mortuary complexes at Saqqara and Abydos. A stela in her honor includes a serekh, which is a royal insignia. A serekh was an early way to show royal names. Her coffin had royal emblems as well. Her name has been found in Abydos on a clay seal impression that mentions early kings from Narmer to Den and called her "King's Mother." There are subsidiary tombs around hers. Because of the size of her complexes at Saqqara and Abydos, it is assumed that she reigned alone or as a regent.
He was one of the last predynastic kings and is associated with the unification. He was pictured wearing the crown of both Upper and Lower Egypt. He may have come from Hierakonpolis. He married a Memphite, possibly Neithotep, after his victories over the Delta nomes. He sent an expedition to the Eastern Desert and was involved in the Coptos trade route. He has a cenotaph in Abydos.
Seth name: Per-ib-sen "Hope of all Hearts"
Fourth king of the second dynasty. He was probably not the immediate successor to Ninetjer, and he may have been a usurper or outsider. He used Seth in his later titles.
Last king of the first dynasty.
Throne name: Kha-khau-re "Appearing like the Souls of Re"
He is one of the most famous in the Middle Kingdom. He was tall, 6 foot f inches, or 2 meters. He limited the power of nobility in the nomes, was active in fighting Nubia, and restored or restructured the canal near the First Cataract. He is buried in a pyramid at Dahshur.
Epithet: Mery-en ptah "Beloved of Ptah"
Throne name: Men-maat-re "Eternal is the Justice of Re"
A king in the 19th dynasty. Egyptians saw his reign as a fresh beginning after the difficult late 18th dynasty. He was the son of Ramesses I and Sitre. He was a good military leader.
Birth name: Egyptian form Djehutymes
Throne name: Men-kheper-re "Lasting is the Manifestation of Re"
He is the son of Tuthmosis II, but he was too young to rule when his father died. Hatshepsut became Regent, and two years later, became outright ruler. Tuthmosis III was in the military during Hatshepsut's rule and became a great general. His son was Amenhotep II.
Sources:Bunson, Margaret. (1991). A Dictionary of Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press.
Clayton, Peter A. (1994). Chronicle of the Pharaohs: The Reign-by-Reign Record of the Rulers and Dynasties of Ancient Egypt. New York: Thames and Hudson.
Grimal, Nicolas. (1992, 1994). A History of Ancient Egypt. New York: Barnes and Noble.
Shaw, Ian. (2003). Exploring Ancient Egypt. New York: Oxford University Press.
To the Eighth Nome